Brain and Spine Tumour

Brain and Spine Tumour
March 23 08:41 2021 by admin Print This Article

The brain and the spinal cord form the Central Nervous System or CNS. The brain plays a pivotal role in managing, controlling, and coordinating several body functions such as movements, sensations, speech, awareness, memory, and thoughts.

The spinal cord is connected to the lower part of the brain called the brainstem and is contained in the spinal canal. It carries messages to and from the brain and the peripheral nerves. Some reflex actions can happen via the spinal pathways without the brain being involved.

Like any other part of the body, the Central Nervous System is also prone to various ailments and conditions and one of them is tumour.

Risk Factors for Brain and Spine Tumours



Adult men are more at risk of brain tumour than adult women
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Children below 9 years of age are more at risk than older children or adolescents
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Vitamin Deficiency and Anaemia
White Caucasians are more at risk of CNS tumours than other races
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Diabetes friendly lunch options
People who are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation, toxic chemicals, chemicals used in the plastic and textile industries are all at risk of brain tumour
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Causes and Risk Factors

Old or damaged cells in the body are replaced by new cells on a continuous basis. This process of cell division and growth happens in a controlled and regulated manner in healthy people.

In some people, however, this process of cell division becomes uncontrolled or unregulated due to genetic or environmental factors. The clump of abnormal cells so formed is then called a tumour.

The tumour may or may not spread to surrounding tissues, or impair their healthy functioning. Tumours can occur in any part of the body or body system including the Central Nervous System.

There are various risk factors for brain and spine tumours.

  • Adult men are more at risk of brain tumour than adult women
  • Children below 9 years of age are more at risk than older children or adolescents
  • White Caucasians are more at risk of CNS tumours than other races
  • People who are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation, toxic chemicals, chemicals used in the plastic and textile industries are all at risk of brain tumour
  • Inherited genetic disorders such as Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and 2
  • People who are suffering from tuberous sclerosis and Von-Hippel Lindau disease are at risk of developing tumours in multiple parts of the body including the CNS
  • People suffering from Li-Fraumeni syndrome are at high risk of CNS tumours

Brain Tumour

Tumours in general are of 2 types: benign or non-cancerous tumours, in which case they grow and spread slowly without doing much damage to surrounding tissues. These can be removed surgically. Malignant tumours are cancerous. These grow and spread quickly within the body and cannot be easily removed by surgery.

CNS tumours are again of 2 types:

Primary: here the tumour is originating in the brain and spinal cord. This is quite rare

Secondary or metastatic: In this case, a clump of cancerous cells from cancer in another part of the body, break away, and spread to the CNS.

There are various types of brain tumours with the more common ones being: astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, meningiomas, medulloblastomas, gangliogliomas, schwannomas, craniopharyngiomas, chordomas, non-hodgkin lymphomas and pituitary tumour.

Symptoms

  • Headaches, which usually worsen in the morning
  • Headaches become more frequent and severe with time
  • Seizures that start suddenly with no clear reason
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Problems in vision or hearing
  • Difficulty in talking, thinking, or remembering
  • Lack of balance or coordination in the movement of arms and legs (clumsiness)
  • Weakness, paralysis, numbness, or loss of sensation in either arm or leg
  • Balance problems, including dizziness, trouble walking, clumsiness, or loss of equilibrium
  • Dizziness, seizures, or convulsions

Spine Tumour

Spinal tumours can start inside the spinal cord, in which case it is called intramedullary, or outside the spinal cord, which is extramedullary. Both types hamper communication between brain and various nerves and also reduce blood supply to the spinal cord. Further, since the spinal cord is narrow, spinal tumours can cause symptoms to appear on both sides of the body.

Symptoms

  • Loss of sensation in various parts of the body
  • Sharp, burning, and tingling pain in the back that radiates to other parts of the body
  • Incontinence or impaired function of the bladder and bowel
  • Weakness, loss of muscle control, lack of sensation in either legs
  • Reduced skin sensitivity to temperature

Diagnosis and Treatment

A neurologist or oncologist will first examine you physically and then review your personal or family medical history. This is followed by one or more of imaging tests such as CT, MRI, fMRI, MRS, PET, SPECT and arteriogram. Finally there are laboratory tests such as blood test, urine test, spinal tap, EEG and MEG.

Treatment options, depending on the location and grade of the tumours, include: neurosurgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, alternative and complementing therapies.

Consult a Neurologist

If you or any of your dear ones are displaying any of the above symptoms, rush to a reputed hospital in Chennai. A neurologist or oncologist will diagnose your condition precisely and decide the right course of treatment for quick recovery and rehabilitation.

 

Kauvery Hospital is globally known for its multidisciplinary services at all its Centers of Excellence, and for its comprehensive, Avant-Grade technology, especially in diagnostics and remedial care in heart diseases, transplantation, vascular and neurosciences medicine. Located in the heart of Trichy (Tennur, Royal Road and Alexandria Road (Cantonment), Chennai, Hosur, Salem and Bengaluru, the hospital also renders adult and pediatric trauma care.

Chennai – 044 4000 6000 • Trichy – Cantonment – 0431 4077777 • Trichy – Heartcity – 0431 4003500 • Trichy – Tennur – 0431 4022555 • Hosur – 04344 272727 • Salem – 0427 2677777 • Bengaluru – 080 6801 6801

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1 Comment

  1. Sarita S Niar
    March 24, 21:19 #1 Sarita S Niar

    It is so important to have the right info. Good blog.

    Reply to this comment

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